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Would the EV Revolution in the Two-Wheeler Sector Really Assist the Nation Achieve Net Zero Emissions?

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The largest population in the world, it's no secret that India is the third-largest CO2 emitter. However, although the country's population is growing, its CO2 emissions are lower than those of developed nations like China and the US. Prime Minister Narendra Modi stated at the 2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference or Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC (COP27) that India would achieve net zero emissions by 2070. India allegedly filed the low emission reports in a single day.

In order to achieve zero emissions, India has started using alternative energy sources like green hydrogen, e-mobility, blended ethanol fuels, and renewable energy. The International Solar Alliance and the Coalition of Disaster Resilience Infrastructure, both of which were founded and developed by India, are two examples of action- and solutions-oriented coalitions that the Indian government is working to promote through its policies to strengthen global collaboration. The use of electric vehicles significantly reduces CO2 emissions. The government has begun providing subsidies to owners of electrically powered vehicles. Let's take a closer look at the two-wheeler revolution that is now taking place in India.

The government would also support programs that offer developing nations technical assistance for preventing and minimizing loss and damage brought on by the effects of climate change and insist on an institutional network to make these programs a reality.

Anticipations by Government
India is part of the global automobile sector that is undergoing a paradigm transition. All countries are expected by the 2015 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to significantly cut their carbon footprints to protect the environment. India has implemented the policy changes suggested by NITI AYOG, a think tank in India, to switch to 100 percent electric vehicles by 2030 in response to the climate change challenge. The two-wheeler industry has led and started the electric revolution since it controls the majority of the Indian automotive market, accounting for approximately 80 percent of all vehicle sales in the nation.

Given the volume and scope of the auto sector it can serve, the two-wheeler market in India is the key to the future of EVs. Sales of electric two-wheelers have steadily climbed since they were first introduced in India in 2015, largely due to greater awareness among the country's young and middle-class populations. Since many low-speed category models are exempt from RTO registration and driving license requirements, electric two-wheelers are also growing in popularity. A foundation for the EV two-wheeler industry to ramp up and push green is provided by the almost 20 million two-wheelers sold in India each year.

The Indian government has ordered that all automakers convert to producing and marketing all two-wheelers as electric vehicles by 2030, acknowledging the size and potential of the EV industry. The FAME-I & FAME-II programs, adopted by the Indian government, gave EVs a boost by enhancing the ecosystem for charging, lowering the Goods & Services Tax (GST) on EV sales, and providing Rs. 10,000 crores in incentives. These policies built the foundation for systematic EV development and acceptance, the Production Linked Incentive (PLI) programs, the scrappage policy, and the Make in India drive. The availability of appropriate charging networks is crucial for adopting electric vehicles, which differs dramatically from the infrastructure needs of current IC engine vehicles.

India's economy, which is among the fastest-growing in the world, will most likely experience a rise in the use of electric two-wheelers in the years to come

In terms of vehicle classes, the two-wheeler market is more conducive to electrification because, according to Government of India support programs, the costs of electric two-wheelers have lately become comparable to those of their counterparts with IC engines. The economic picture for the sector appears to be positive because such vehicles can also be charged by relatively low-power stations.

Battery and Safety Concerns
The only way to make EVs cheaper is to lower the cost of batteries. The benchmark of $80-100 per kWh is frequently used to determine when EVs will become competitively priced with ICE automobiles. The decline in battery prices seen over the previous ten years has not been maintained recently. Although a number of factors contribute to this stagnation, the cost of raw materials like cobalt, nickel, and lithium is by far the biggest. Electric scooter fire incidents have occurred often over the past two years, increasing concerns about the safety of these vehicles in the EV market. Concerns about whether the makers marketed their items without conducting sufficient quality and safety inspections have also been raised in light of the recent incidents.

Clean Energy
Going to an entirely electric world with no exhaust emissions and long-term economic viability is more enticing than ever. To battle pollution, which puts all life on Earth in peril, the EV and renewable energy industries have been working to produce a carbon-neutral and fuel-efficient form of transportation. While a number of obstacles may make it more difficult for EVs to gain traction in the four-wheeler market, EV two-wheeler manufacturers have largely succeeded in educating consumers, raising awareness, and busting myths that have prevented broader adoption.

India's economy, which is among the fastest-growing in the world, will most likely experience a rise in the use of electric two-wheelers in the years to come. Two-wheelers will improve quality of life by fostering environmental sustainability and acting as a vital link between smaller villages and towns, and metropolises. The future seems promising, but there is still potential to increase comprehensive rules and technical standards pertaining to electric two-wheelers, charging infrastructure, battery swapping systems, vehicle disposal, and battery recycling, so it may be even more promising.

India would also support programs that offer developing nations technical assistance for preventing and minimizing loss and damage brought on by the effects of climate change and would insist on an institutional network to make these initiatives a reality. India is already suffering from the terrible effects of climate change. Millions of people around the nation are vulnerable to high heat, water shortages, and meteorological calamities like flooding and coastal erosion, all of which have been on the rise recently.

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